Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies

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The lack of improvement among control groups reinforces the role of exercise as a treatment for depression with benefits to QoL. International Scholarly Research Notices. Research investigating the effects of exercise on older adults has primarily focused on brain structural and functional changes with relation to cognitive improvement. In particular, several cross-sectional and intervention studies have shown a positive association between physical activity and cognition in older persons [86] and an inverse correlation with cognitive decline and dementia [87]. Older adults enrolled in a 6-month aerobic fitness intervention increased brain volume in both gray matter anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, posterior middle frontal gyrus, and left superior temporal lobe and white matter anterior third of corpus callosum [88].

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In addition, Colcombe and colleagues showed that older adults with higher cardiovascular fitness levels are better at activating attentional resources, including decreased activation of the anterior cingulated cortex. One of the possible mechanisms by which physical activity may benefit cognition is that physical activity maintains brain plasticity, increases brain volume, stimulates neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, and increases neurotrophic factors in different areas of the brain, possibly providing reserve against later cognitive decline and dementia [89, 90].

Brain Plasticity. A large collection of research in humans has shown that a single bout of exercise alters behavior at the level of affective state and cognitive functioning in several key ways. In terms of affective state, acute exercise decreases negative affect, increases positive affect, and decreases the psychological and physiological response to acute stress [28]. These effects have been reported to persist for up to 24 hours after exercise cessation [28, 29, 53]. In terms of cognitive functioning, acute exercise primarily enhances executive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex including attention, working memory, problem solving, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, decision making, and inhibitory control [9].

These positive changes have been demonstrated to occur with very low to very high exercise intensities [9], with effects lasting for up to two hours after the end of the exercise bout Fig. Moreover, many of these neuropsychological assessments measure several aspects of behavior including both accuracy of performance and speed of processing. McMorris and Hale performed a meta-analysis examining the effects of acute exercise on both accuracy and speed of processing, revealing that speed significantly improved post-exercise, with minimal or no effect on accuracy [17].

These authors concluded that increasing task difficulty or complexity may help to augment the effect of acute exercise on accuracy. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol in Portuguese. Interestingly, some symptoms of OT are related to beta-endorphin beta-end effects. Some of its effects, such as analgesia, increasing lactate tolerance, and exercise-induced euphoria, are important for training.

The runner's high describes a euphoric state resulting from long-distance running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. J Clin Psychiatry. This systematic review and meta-analysis found that physical activity reduced depressive symptoms among people with a psychiatric illness. The current meta-analysis differs from previous studies, as it included participants with depressive symptoms with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses except dysthymia and eating disorders. This review provides strong evidence for the antidepressant effect of physical activity; however, the optimal exercise modality, volume, and intensity remain to be determined.

Conclusion Few interventions exist whereby patients can hope to achieve improvements in both psychiatric symptoms and physical health simultaneously without significant risks of adverse effects. Physical activity offers substantial promise for improving outcomes for people living with mental illness, and the inclusion of physical activity and exercise programs within treatment facilities is warranted given the results of this review. J Psychiatr Res. Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF may mediate these effects.

The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans. Prev Chronic Dis. This omission is relevant, given the evidence that aerobic-based physical activity generates structural changes in the brain, such as neurogenesis, angiogenesis, increased hippocampal volume, and connectivity 12, In children, a positive relationship between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory has been found 12, Mental health outcomes included reduced depression and increased self-esteem, although no change was found in anxiety levels This systematic review of the literature found that [aerobic physical activity APA ] is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes.

Importantly, Shephard also showed that curriculum time reassigned to APA still results in a measurable, albeit small, improvement in academic performance The actual aerobic-based activity does not appear to be a major factor; interventions used many different types of APA and found similar associations. In positive association studies, intensity of the aerobic activity was moderate to vigorous. The amount of time spent in APA varied significantly between studies; however, even as little as 45 minutes per week appeared to have a benefit.

CNS Spectr. Considered overall, the studies included in the present review showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants. Conclusions This is the first review to have focused on exercise as an add-on strategy in the treatment of MDD. Our findings corroborate some previous observations that were based on few studies and which were difficult to generalize. Moreover, we hypothesize that the main role of exercise on treatment-resistant depression is in inducing neurogenesis by increasing BDNF expression, as was demonstrated by several recent studies.

Asian J. Keeping in mind that exercise shows no medication side effects such as withdrawal symptoms 20 , weight gain, dry mouth or insomnia 21 , but shows potential health benefits such as weight reduction, it is highly recommended to use exercise as an adjunctive treatment for depression New findings confirm that exercise can be recommended as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate depression; as an adjunct to medications 23 ; as an alternative to cognitive behavioral therapy 11 ; and in preventing depression in clinical as well as healthy populations 24— Although recent findings have shown that exercise can decrease depressive symptoms, there are still many questions and limitations to wider application of exercise in depression.

For instance, there are deficiencies in methodological planning such as uncontrolled nonrandomized trials, small sample sizes, inadequate allocation concealment, lack of intention-to-treat analyses, non-blinded outcome assessments, and inclusion of subjects without clinical diagnosis that limit the interpretability of research outcomes The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD: a systematic literature review". Neural Transm. Acta Paediatr. The present review summarises the impact of exercise interventions 1—10 weeks in duration with at least two sessions each week on parameters related to ADHD in 7-to year-old children.

We may conclude that all different types of exercise here yoga , active games with and without the involvement of balls, walking and athletic training attenuate the characteristic symptoms of ADHD and improve social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters without any undesirable side effects. Available reports do not reveal which type, intensity, duration and frequency of exercise is most effective in this respect and future research focusing on this question with randomised and controlled long-term interventions is warranted.

Special article. Lay summary — Exercise may improve thinking ability and memory 27 December In patients with MCI, exercise training 6 months is likely to improve cognitive measures and cognitive training may improve cognitive measures. Clinicians should recommend regular exercise Level B. Int Psychogeriatr. Exercise generally had a positive effect on rate of cognitive decline in AD. A meta-analysis found that exercise interventions have a positive effect on global cognitive function, 0.


Telerehabilitation and the use of smartphone physiotherapy applications for home exercise programs

Cognitive decline in AD is attributable at least in part to the buildup of amyloid and tau proteins, which promote neuronal dysfunction and death Hardy and Selkoe, ; Karran et al. Evidence in transgenic mouse models of AD, in which the mice have artificially elevated amyloid load, suggests that exercise programs are able to improve cognitive function Adlard et al.

Adlard and colleagues also determined that the improvement in cognitive performance occurred in conjunction with a reduced amyloid load. Research that includes direct indices of change in such biomarkers will help to determine the mechanisms by which exercise may act on cognition in AD. Am J Occup Ther. All studies included people with AD who completed an exercise program consisting of aerobic, strength, or balance training or any combination of the three.

The length of the exercise programs varied from 12 weeks to 12 months. Six studies involving participants tested the effect of exercise on ADL performance These positive effects were apparent with programs ranging in length from 12 wk Santana-Sosa et al. Furthermore, the positive effects of a 3-mo intervention lasted 24 mo Teri et al.

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No adverse effects of exercise on ADL performance were noted. The study with the largest effect size implemented a walking and aerobic program of only 30 min four times a week Venturelli et al. J Parkinsons Dis. Rev Neurosci. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. BMC Public Health. Longitudinal observational studies show an association between higher levels of physical activity and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia.

A case can be made for a causal interpretation. Future research should use objective measures of physical activity, adjust for the full range of confounders and have adequate follow-up length. Ideally, randomised controlled trials will be conducted. On the whole the results do, however, lend support to the notion of a causal relationship between physical activity, cognitive decline and dementia, according to the established criteria for causal inference.

There is accelerating evidence that physical exercise is a useful treatment for preventing and reducing drug addiction In some individuals, exercise has its own rewarding effects, and a behavioral economic interaction may occur, such that physical and social rewards of exercise can substitute for the rewarding effects of drug abuse.

The value of this form of treatment for drug addiction in laboratory animals and humans is that exercise, if it can substitute for the rewarding effects of drugs, could be self-maintained over an extended period of time. Work to date in [laboratory animals and humans] regarding exercise as a treatment for drug addiction supports this hypothesis. However, a RTC study was recently reported by Rawson et al. Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most promising treatments on the horizon.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Similar to environmental enrichment, studies have found that exercise reduces self-administration and relapse to drugs of abuse Cosgrove et al. There is also some evidence that these preclinical findings translate to human populations, as exercise reduces withdrawal symptoms and relapse in abstinent smokers Daniel et al.

In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in or compulsive engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex Evans et al.

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Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. The limited research conducted suggests that exercise may be an effective adjunctive treatment for SUDs. In contrast to the scarce intervention trials to date, a relative abundance of literature on the theoretical and practical reasons supporting the investigation of this topic has been published. As briefly reviewed above, a large number of human and rodent studies clearly show that there are sex differences in drug addiction and exercise. The sex differences are also found in the effectiveness of exercise on drug addiction prevention and treatment, as well as underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

The postulate that exercise serves as an ideal intervention for drug addiction has been widely recognized and used in human and animal rehabilitation. In particular, more studies on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise and its roles in preventing and treating drug addiction are needed. Cochrane Database Syst.

Exercise is moderately more effective than a control intervention for reducing symptoms of depression, but analysis of methodologically robust trials only shows a smaller effect in favour of exercise. When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion is based on a few small trials. BMC Psychiatry. Life Sci. Ir J Med Sci.

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Br J Sports Med. Trends Pharmacol. Rev Recent Clin Trials. Journal of Physiotherapy. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. Cutting weight, losing life. Retrieved 5 October , from ProQuest database. J Appl Physiol. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Accident Analysis and Prevention. Atmospheric Environment. Bibcode : AtmEn.. Environmental Health. Performance Aspects of Overtraining".

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Addiction Research.

Exercise and Wellness for Older Adults - 2nd Edition: Practical Programming Strategies

Acta Physiologica. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. Retrieved 27 May Clinical Nutrition Edinburgh, Scotland. During the first 2. It may seem difficult for one to reconcile that acute provision of CaHMB, in the absence of exogenous nutrition i. EAA's and following an overnight fast, is still able to elicit a robust, perhaps near maximal stimulation of MPS, i. Sport Sci. Age Dordrecht, Netherlands. Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. January Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation.

Exercise Warm Up for Older Adults

Journal of Neurology. Journal of Applied Physiology. American Journal of Physical Medicine. Comprehensive Physiology. Psychological Bulletin. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. From a molecular perspective, elevated systemic levels of circulating growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 in blood elicited by increased exercise have been shown to mediate, in part, enhancements in neurogenesis Trejo et al.

Interface Focus. Importantly, physical exercise can improve growth factor signalling directly or indirectly by reducing pro-inflammatory signalling [33]. Exercise-induced increases in brain monoamines norepinephrine and serotonin may also contribute to increased expression of hippocampal BDNF []. In addition, other growth factors—insulin-like growth factor-1 IGF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor—have been shown to play an important role in BDNF-induced effects on neuroplasticity [33,,,], as well as exerting neuroprotective effects of their own [33,,], thereby contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on brain health.

Abundant research in the last decade has shown that exercise is one of the strongest promoters of neurogenesis in the brain of adult rodents 97, and humans 1,61 , and this has introduced the possibility that proliferating neurons could contribute to the cognitive enhancement observed with exercise. Although the action of exercise on brain angiogenesis has been known for many years 10 , it is not until recently that neurovascular adaptations in the hippocampus have been associated with cognitive function Front Physiol.

Exercise-related improvements in brain function and structure may be conferred by the concurrent adaptations in vascular function and structure. Aerobic exercise increases the peripheral levels of growth factors e. Consistent with this, exercise-related enlargement of hippocampus was accompanied by increases in cerebral blood volume and capillary densities Pereira et al. Enhanced cerebral perfusion may not only facilitate the delivery of energy substrates, but also lower the risk of vascular-related brain damages, including WMH and silent infarct Tseng et al.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A systematic review". British Journal of Sports Medicine. Am J Prev Med. Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 10 January Environment International. Systematic Reviews. Journal of Obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 18 December NY Times.

Travel Fish. Retrieved 8 December Stockholm on a Shoestring. National Public Radio. Sports Sci. Retrieved 20 September Encyclopedia Britannica. Bloomsbury USA. Cambridge University Press. The Fitness League. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 8 April Financial Times. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Behavior Genetics. Behavioral Neuroscience. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Frontiers in Physiology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A.

Journal of Comparative Physiology B. The Journal of Physiology. Journal of Experimental Biology. Exercise at Wikipedia's sister projects. Sprinting Strength training Bodyweight exercise Weight training.

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Exercise equipment Exercise physiology Neurobiological effects Exercise trends Fitness culture Outline of exercise Physical culture Physical fitness. Categories : Physical exercise Management of obesity. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value CS1 Portuguese-language sources pt Use dmy dates from November All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Skeletal muscle morphology and exercise performance adaptations. Muscle strength and power. Over people have participated in the program. The specific challenges for healthy eating are described and specific components of their program are identified, including annual walk or run events, conferences, and exercise programs.

For those of us who have forgotten our undergraduate nutrition course, this article presents the basics of nutrition for healthy living. The articles presented in this topic will greatly benefit nurses both professionally and personally in leading healthier lives. The journal editors invite you to share your response to this OJIN topic addressing Heathy Nurses either by writing a Letter to the Editor or by submitting a manuscript which will further the discussion of this topic which has been initiated by these introductory articles.

She has conducted numerous research studies and has multiple publications concerning the aging, health, and safety of the nursing workforce, especially in relation to quality outcomes. She enjoys mentoring students and clinical nurses on research and evidence based practice projects.

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American Nurses Association n. Healthy nurse TM. Retrieved from www. Fronteira, I. Do nurses have a different physical health profile? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20 , Jacobsen, H. B, Reme, S. Work stress, sleep deficiency, and predicted year cardiometabolic risk in a female patient care worker population.

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American Journal of Internal Medicine, 57 8 , Letvak, S. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 37 4 , American Journal of Nursing, 2 , Depression in hospital employed nurses. Lown, B. Academic Medicine, 85 6 , Schwartz Center Rounds n. Viswanathan, A. Night shift work and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Research, 67 21 , OJIN is a peer-reviewed, online publication that addresses current topics affecting nursing practice, research, education, and the wider health care sector. Find Out More Benefit for Members Members have access to current topic More Letter to the Editor Thank you for giving us the opportunity to respond to the letter to the editor written by Lisa Palucci.

We are pleased to see her interest in older adults with multimorbidity and advancing models of care and care coordination for this growing population group.

Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies
Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies
Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies
Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies
Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies
Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies Exercise and wellness for older adults : practical programming strategies

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